Откуда произошло слово “Альбион” и немного о Британии…
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Albion is a word used in some poetic or rhetorical contexts to refer to England. It was the original Roman name for Britain. It may come from the Latin word albus, meaning “white”. The white chalk cliffs around Dover on the south coast are the first part of England to be seen when crossing the sea from the European mainland.
Britannia is the name that the Romans gave to their southern British province (which covered approximately, the area of present day England). It is also the name given to the female embodiment of Britain, always shown wearing a helmet and holding a trident (the symbol of power over the sea), hence the patriotic song which begins ‘Rule Britannia, Britannia rule the waves’. The figure of Britannia has been on the reverse side of many British coins for more than 300 years.
Briton is a word used in official contexts and in formal writing to describe a citizen of the United Kingdom. ‘Ancient Britons’ is the name given to the race of people who lived in England before and during the Roman occupation (AD 43-410). These are the ancestors of the present-day Welsh people.
John Bull is a fictional character who is supposed to personify Englishness and certain English virtues. (He can be compared to Uncle Sam in the USA). He features in hundreds of nineteenth century cartoons. His appearance is typical of an eighteenth century country gentleman, evoking an idyllic rural past.
Caledonia, Cambria and Hibernia were the Roman names for Scotland, Wales and Ireland respectively. The words are commonly used today in scholarly classifications (for example, the type of English used in Ireland is sometimes called ‘Hiberno-English’) and for the names of organizations (the airline ‘British Caledonian’).
Erin is a poetic name for Ireland. ‘The Emerald Isle’ is another way of referring to Ireland, evoking the lush greenery of its countryside.